Psychobiotic Revolution – “Chillax” with Probiotics

 

Do you know that human adult gut is populated by 10–100 trillion microbes that encapsulate approximately 150 times more genetic material than the human genome itself. Yes! It’s shocking! Now there is increasing evidence that gut microflora can influence the brain, but the scientists still figuring out how they do it. They do know however that regular intake of probiotic (good bacteria)  reduces levels of anxiety and depression-like behavior. They believe that good bacteria are capable of inducing changes in the GABAergic system in regions of the brain that are known to be involved in modulation of moods and behaviors.

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What are psychobiotics?

Psychobiotics are live bacteria (probiotics) which, when ingested, confer mental health benefits through interactions with commensal gut bacteria. This also includes prebiotics, which enhances the growth of beneficial gut bacteria. Psychobiotics exert anxiolytic (anti-anxiety) and antidepressant effects characterized by changes in emotional, cognitive, systemic, and neural indices. Bacteria–brain communication channels through which psychobiotics exert effects include the enteric nervous system (Gut-Brain Axis) and the immune system.

The bacteria most frequently exploited as probiotics are the Gram-positive Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillusfamilies. Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli do not possess pro-inflammatory lipopolysaccharide chains, and so their presence and colonization in the gut do not trigger inflammatory action of our immune system nor cause infections. It should be noted, however, that Gram-positive bacteria are not always beneficial, and some species, such as the Clostridia family, may be pathogenic.

What is Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis (“The Gut Feeling”)

The gut microbiome comprises all microorganisms  inhabiting the intestinal tract. Gut–brain axis through early colonisation and through which the brain and gut jointly maintain an organism’s health.

A pivotal study found that mice raised in sterile environments  (lacking indigenous bacteria) showed exaggerated physiological reactions to stress compared to normal controls. The abnormal reactions were reversible through probiotic-induced bacterial recolonization.

Gut bacteria have since been found to participate in the regulation of varied and important physiological processes, including immunomodulation (regulation of immune response against invaders), adiposity (regulation and distribution of fat tissue in the body), and metabolism as well as the modulation of nervous system in the gut.

What are the clinical experiments to support the benefits of probiotics on anxiety and depression? – “In the pursuit of happiness”

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Most studies are based on rodent models to induce life stress and behavioral changes. Findings of the studies are summarized below;

Probiotics increase production of  Serotonin (“Happy Hormones”) (Journal of Psychiatric Research, 2008) – Sprague-Dawley rats treated for 14 days with Bifidobacteria infantis have higher level of the serotonergic precursor, tryptophan by bifidobacteria treatment, provides encouraging evidence in support of the proposition that this probiotic may possess antidepressant effects.

Probiotics vs. Antidepressant Study (Neuroscience, 2010) – Probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis supplementation in rats (maternal-separation model) normalizes the anxiety and depressive behaviours in the rats and the effects of probiotics were noted to be comparable to effects of citalopram (anti-depressant).

Probiotics effects on brain (National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011) –  Rats fed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed fewer depressive and anxious behaviours. These changes were accompanied by a blunted corticosterone response to stress, suggesting that the probiotic downregulated HPA-axis activity. Probiotics differentially altered expression of inhibitory GABA receptors in specific brain areas via Vagus Nerves (nerves that connect the gut to the brain).

Probiotics reduce anxiety and improve learning (The Sages College, New York, 2013) – Healthy mice fed Mycobacterium vaccae displayed reduced anxiety in a maze-learning task. Probiotic-fed mice completed the maze faster and with fewer errors, The benefits persisted at 1 week, but not 3 weeks, after supplementation.

Any latest Human Researches?

Fermented milk drink containing Lactobacillus casei Shirota (Yakult, Japan) vs. placebo -supplementation resulted in significantly more participants self-rating as happy rather than depressed, relative to placebo (European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2006).

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Bottom lines

In conclusion, there are significant benefits of probiotics in improving the moods and reducing anxiety levels, therefore next time instead of binging on alcohol, try probiotic drink instead. Try to consume probiotics daily and consistently either by consuming probiotics yogourt, yogourt drink or even taking the capsule of probiotics daily. Dairy free-options includes Kefir and fermented vegetables such as Kimchi.

Enjoy and “Chillax” the healthy way!

 

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Miracles of Olive Oils

Olive oil is one of the most healthy forms of dietary fats. There are several types of olive oils that are present in the market. Ranging from Extra Virgin Olive oils to mixed products of several vegetable oils for cooking, salad dressing etc.  A key question is,

“What makes the olive oils so nutritionally beneficial and considered as the miracle oil?”

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Scientifically, the major components of the olive oil are fatty acids. There are different type of fatty acids in olive oils, of which the MUFA oleic acid represents from 55 to 83 % of the total fatty acids, PUFA from 4 to 20 % and SFA from 8 to 14 %.

The minor components of olive oil constitute from 1 to 2 % of the total content of an olive oil. They are classified into two types:

(1) the unsaponifiable fraction that could be extracted with solvents after the saponification of the oil and contains squalene and other triterpenes, sterols, tocopherols, and pigments;

(2) the soluble fraction that includes the phenolic compounds, which are the most studied and best-known components in terms of their benefits for health.

The benefits of olive oils are summarised below. The findings are based on verified clinical studies and experimental studies on animals.

Cardioprotective effects of Olive Oils

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Regular consumption of olive oils is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease.

This cardioprotective effect is verified in The PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) study published in BMC medical journal (2014). The study showed that Olive oil consumption in Mediterranean populations, specifically the extra-virgin variety, is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease. The study also found that olive oil consumption was associated with a 48% reduced risk of death from cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively.

Hence, if you have significant family history and risk factors for heart disease, olive oils are the best option compared to other vegetables or animal-derived oils for regular consumption in order to reduce your risks of cardiovascular disease.

 

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The benefits of olive oils are not limited to the heart. A large body of evidence demonstrated the benefits of Olive oil. The scientifically proven benefits of olive oils consumption are published in The British Journal of Nutrition (2014);

  • Improve lipid profile – Olive oils are the healthier choice of fats because it contains a high level of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats and shown to increase HDL level.
  • Improve insulin sensitivity (the ability of the cells to transport glucose from the bloodstream into the cells) – Hence, reducing the risk of Type 2 Diabetes
  • Rich in antioxidants – Olive oil is full of antioxidants such as vitamin Ecarotenoids and oleuropein.
  • Reduce inflammation – reduce the risk of developing autoimmune disease
  • Reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (ie stroke and heart attacks) by maintaining normal endothelial (blood vessel lining) function, thrombotic factors (prevent blood clots) and reduction of blood pressure.

Because of the high quality of evidence, Federal Drug Administration of the USA permitted a claim on olive oil labels concerning: ‘the benefits on the risk of CHD of eating about two tablespoons (23 g) of olive oil daily, due to the monounsaturated fat (MUFA) in olive oil’.

Olive Oils are Natural Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory

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Virgin Olive Oils (VOO) with high phenolic content has been shown to be effective in reducing the eicosanoid inflammatory mediators derived from arachidonic acid (pro-inflammatory precursor). A research published in Nature (2004), found that newly pressed extra-virgin olive oil contains oleocanthal. Oleocanthal (oleo for olive, canth for sting, and al for aldehyde) –  a compound whose pungency induces a strong stinging sensation in the throat, not unlike that caused by solutions of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen.

A point of interest is that the spatial irritation produced by oleocanthal is specific to the throat region. Generally, irritant or pungent foods are perceived in all regions in the mouth, rather than isolated to a spatially distinct area. This implies that a sensory receptor specific to oleocanthal exists exclusively in the oropharyngeal region but not in the mouth. 

Oleocanthal is a natural anti-inflammatory compound that has a potency and profile strikingly similar to that of ibuprofen. Although they have different chemical structure, they both inhibit the same COX enzymes in the prostaglandin-biosynthesis pathway. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory-related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neurodegenerative disease (Alzheimer’s) and cancers. This could explain the reason why the prevalence of chronic inflammatory disease in Mediterranean populations are the lowest in the world, and life expectancy amongst the highest!

Olive oils for healthy skin

Olive oil is an excellent moisturizer. Linoleic acids in the oils prevent water from evaporating. So if you put olive oil on your skin, it locks in the moisture and all of the other vitamins and minerals olive oil contains.

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Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of extra-virgin olive oil can help with this common skin problem such as acne and dermatitis. Application of Olive oils on the skin with dermatitis help to prevent colonization and infection caused by Staph aureus (Dermatitis, 2008).

Olive oil is a natural sunscreen. It can be used to protect the skin from damaging ultraviolet ray. Plus, the presence of fats and cholesterol in the oils helps the skin to synthesize vitamin D when exposed to sunlight. It also can be used to treat sunburns.

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Olive oils for healthy hairs

Olive oils not only have antibacterial action but it also able to kill yeast and fungus. Antifungal properties in extra-virgin olive oil can help with a dandruff problem. It also can be used to treat damaged hair.

Apply oil to the scalp and cover with a shower cap or plastic carrier bag. Relax for an hour then shampoo hair. Repeat twice a week.

 

Olive oils for healthier Gut

Olive oil stimulates the production of bile in the liver and its expulsion from the gallbladder into the intestine. Hence, it will help the gut to digest the fatty foods better. Consume one to two tablespoons of extra-virgin olive oil with each fatty meal.

Extra virgin olive oil to be effective against H. pylori. H. pylori are harmful that can cause gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and some case, stomach cancer. In the study published in Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (2007), olive oils exhibit a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics! Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL.

A Spanish study by Castro et. al (2012) showed that 30 grams of extra virgin olive oil can eliminate Helicobacter pylori infection in 10-40% of people in as little as 4 weeks.

 

person pouring vegetable oil on vegetable salad

In conclusion, they are plenty of benefits of olive oils and the latest research and clinical trials support the use of olive oils for its medicinal use. I personally take 1 spoon of olive oils in the morning. If I forget to take it in the morning, I usually use the oils on my salads or take 1 spoon with my dinners. 1 tablespoon of Olive oils a day keeps the disease away!

 

 

7 Best Protein Powder

What are protein powder?

Protein powder is a common supplement that provides a concentrated amount of dietary protein from both plant and animal sources. Some popular examples include whey, casein, hemp and bone broth protein powder. Protein powder helps to build muscle mass and maximize fat burning. You can also use protein powder to increase your caloric intake if you’re wanting to gain weight in a healthy way.

There are also several different forms of protein powder;

  • Protein concentrates:  contains 60–80 percent of calories from protein with the remaining calories from fat and carbohydrates.
  • Protein isolates: Protein isolates are further filtered to remove much of the fat and carbohydrates, resulting in a more highly concentrated form of protein powder. In general, protein isolates typically contain between 90–95 percent protein.
  • Protein hydrolysates: produced by breaking down the bond between amino acids in the protein, creating a type of small protein (peptides) that is more easily absorbable by your body.

What are the best Protein powder?

  1. Bone Broth Protein Powder
  2. Collagen Protein Powder
  3. Whey Protein Powder
  4. Hemp Protein Powder
  5. Pea Protein Powder
  6. Casein Protein Powder
  7. Brown Rice Protein Powder

Bone Broth Protein Powder

Bone broth is made by simmering different parts of animals, including bones and connective tissues, into a nutrient-rich broth, which can then be dehydrated and concentrated into a protein powder.

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Benefits:

  • Rich in Collagen: Collagen is an important protein to maintain healthy hair, skin, joints and nails.
  • Improve skin elasticity and moisture:  Studies show that supplementing with a collagen-containing supplement like bone broth protein powder could improve skin elasticity and skin moisture in older adults. A Study published in Journal of Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (2014) showed that supplementation with collagen peptides improve skin elasticity and moisture after 4 weeks of taking the supplement.
  • Modulate Immune System: Some research suggests that protein powder made from bone broth can reduce inflammation and reduce the risk of inflammatory condition such as leaky gut syndrome.
  • Promote joint health: Collagen has been shown to reduce joint micro-injuries from strenuous activities and reduce joint pain athletes (Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2008).

Collagen Protein Powder

Beside bone broths, other best sources of collagen protein includes chicken collagen, bovine collagen fish collagen and egg-shell collagen.

Whey Protein

Whey protein is produced from milk. Therefore, it may contain lactose and may not be suitable for lactose intolerance individuals. If you have lactose intolerance, the best option is to take whey protein isolate as majority of the lactose are removed during the manufacturing process. But the price for the whey protein isolate maybe slightly expensive compared to whey protein concentrate or mixed or combination. Nowadays, most brand will tell you on the label whether the protein is suitable or not for lactose intolerant individuals.

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Benefits of Whey Protein

Improve muscle strength; whey protein can help speed up muscle recovery and enhance muscle growth.

High in BCAA; BCAA helps to promote muscle recovery and support muscle synthesis after exercise.

Modulate appetite; Help to reduce appetite or hunger.

Improve fat body composition; Whey protein help to decrease fat mass and waist circumference (Journal of Nutrition, 2011).

 

Niacinamide for Acne

What is Niacinamide?

Niacinamide is also known as vitamin B3 and nicotinic acid. They are present naturally in the foods that we consume everyday and maybe present in the Vitamin or foods supplement that we take for the skins. Niacinamide is a component of important coenzymes involved in hydrogen transfer in cellular process in the whole body.  Recently, niacinamide have been shown to be effective in fighting acne and also improve skin moisture. Niacinamide works by nourishing and repairing the outer layer of our skin.

What are the benefits of Niacinamide

Niacinamide is added to skin care products for acne-prone skin because of its skin-repairing properties that can increase skin hydration, brighten skin tone and improve skin texture. It is also has anti-inflammatory effects and was shown to reduce the inflammation on the skin and make it less irritable. It’s anti-inflammatory effects in have been shown to be effective treatment in acne, rosacea and nitrogen mustard-induced skin irritation.

Topical application of niacinamide has a stabilizing effect on epidermal barrier function, seen as a reduction in transepidermal water loss and an improvement in the moisture content of outer layer of the skin. Niacinamide stimulate the production of ceramide, which are the natural moisture-retaining protein in the skin and prevent water loss through the skin.

It also has anti-aging properties and was shown to improves the surface structure, smoothes out wrinkles and inhibits photocarcinogenesis. It was shown to decrease the risk of developing skin cancer in people with high risks such as patients taking immunosuppression. 

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Key benefits of Niacinamide

  • Increases skin moisture
  • Brightens skin complexion
  • Improve skin texture
  • Strengthens the skin’s protective barrier
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Reduces acne and redness
  • Anti-aging
  • Stimulates collagen production
  • Reduces hyperpigmentation

Are the use of Niacinamide for acne have been proven clinically? 

In the study published in International Journal of Dermatology (1995), 4% nicotinamide gel is of comparable efficacy to 1% clindamycin gel in the treatment of acne vulgaris. It is also considered a safer and cost-effective alternative to topical antibiotics because the use of clindamycin can promote the growth of antibiotic-resistant skin bacteria.

Study published in Cosmetic Laser Therapy (2006) shown that topical application of 2% nicotinamide gel is shown to be effective in reducing serum production especially in Asian skin type.

So, can i buy the nicotinamide gel over the counter or do i need a prescription from the Dermatologists?

For higher concentration of nicotinamide (>2%), you need the prescription from the doctors but nowadays you can buy some skin products that contain nicotinamide in the formulation which actually work fine too! La Roche Posay for example has product line formulated for acne-prone skin such Effaclar Duo which contains nicotinamide as main ingredients!

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Active ingredient of Effaclar Duo

  • Procerad: helps protect against the appearance of red or brown marks.
  • Mannose: stimulates skin regeneration.
  • APF: helps durably restore skin’s balance.
  • Niacinamide: active ingredient for intensive soothing. Decreases redness.
  • Piroctone olamine to combat bacterial proliferation
  • LHA and salicylic acid micro-exfoliates without irritating.
  • Zinc PCA: reduces sebum secretion.

Myself am currently using this cream and i have to say that it works very well in reducing the acne on the face and is one of my favourite skin care products from this brand. You can also find the nicotinamide solution on the Amazon from brand called Ordinary which manufactures nicotinamide in higher formulation.

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I also have this product in my toilet cabinet and i usually mixed this with my daily moisturiser.

Can Niacinamide be used by all ?

Niacinamide is very safe if used in the right amount and right technique but i advice you to start slowly and gently on the skin to prevent skin irritation. You should not be high concentration Niacinamide if you have

  • Liver disease
  • Active ulcers or a history of ulcers
  • ​Gout – niacinamide can increase the level of uric acid in the blood can cause gouty attacks

If you drink excessive amounts of alcohol, you should not use niacinamide cream as it can react with increased levels of alcohol in your body.

I hope this post will help! Feel free to comment and ask the questions and i will try to help with my best knowledge and from my previous and current experience.

With lots of Love,

Mr Marvelous

The 7 Benefits of Coconut Oils

clear glass container with coconut oilCoconut, Cocos nucifera L., is a tree that is mainly grown for its nutritional and medicinal values. Coconut oil, derived from the coconut fruit, has been recognized historically as containing high levels of saturated fat. Unlike most other dietary fats that are high in long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil comprises medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). MCFA are unique in that they are easily absorbed and metabolized by the liver, and can be converted to ketones. Ketone bodies are an important alternative energy source in the brain and may be beneficial to people developing or already with memory impairment, as in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here are the 7 wonderful benefits of coconut oils

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  1. Improve your lipid profile

Daily consumption of coconut oils has been shown to improve the lipid profile and reduce the level of bad cholesterol in the body. Coconut oils have been shown in the studies to increase the HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) level (good cholesterol) and reduce LDL (Low-Density Lipoprotein) level (bad cholesterol) in the body. Recent study published in the BMJ journal shown that Coconut oil significantly increased HDL-C compared with butter 1. HDL level is usually used by the doctors as a marker of physical fitness. A healthy and active individual usually have a higher ratio of HDL over LDL. The level of LDL can be increased by regular exercise and physical activity. A sedentary lifestyle is associated with increased LDL level and reduced level of HDL in the blood.

  1. Improve brain power and cognitive functions

Regular consumption of coconut oils has been shown to improve brain function and reduce the risk of developing dementia. Coconut oils have been shown to improve the brain function of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and considered non-drug alternative for treatment of dementia 2. One study on coconut oil enriched Mediterranean diet shown improvement in cognitive functions in patients with AD after 21 days of adopting this diet 3 . In addition to MCFA, coconut also contains phenolic compounds and hormones (cytokinins) that may assist in preventing the aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide, potentially inhibiting a key step in the pathogenesis of AD 4. Coconut oil has also been studied for the treatment of seizure disorder or epilepsy which are caused by abnormal neuronal discharges and activities in the brain.

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  1. Increase body ability to burn fat and body metabolic rate

Coconut oils contain Medium-Chain fatty acids or Triglycerides (MCTs) and have been shown to help the body to burn fats efficiently through increased energy expenditure and lipid oxidation (fat burning). Coconut oil contains combinations of MCTs that help to increase the metabolic rate of the body and help to burn fat,  aid the weight loss process and prevent obesity 5. Randomized controlled trials show that MCTs intake in the diet induces modest reductions in body weight and composition without adversely affecting lipid profiles. That means that you can consume coconut oils in moderation without increasing your cholesterol level 6.

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  1. Best Skin Moisturiser and natural sun-screen

Coconut oils also can be applied to the skin and used as a moisturizer. Coconut oils were shown in clinical studies to improve skin health by providing effective skin hydration and increase skin surface lipid levels 7. Coconut oils are hypoallergenic, chemical-free, and fragrance-free, therefore suitable for all type of skin even the sensitive skins. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is the finest grade of coconut oil are best used on the skin as the oils are rich in phenolic content, antioxidant activity and contains medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). Applications of VCO on the skin have been shown to speed the healing process by increasing the production of collagen and formation of new blood vessels and this has been shown on the animal’s models 8.  In addition, coconut oils also able to block 20% of the UV from penetrating the skin when exposed to sunlight. Coconut oils are also beneficial for hairs. Coconut oil, being a triglyceride of lauric acid (principal fatty acid), has a high affinity for hair proteins and, because of its low molecular weight and straight linear chain, is able to penetrate inside the hair shaft.

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  1. Natural antimicrobials

Coconut oils are a natural antibiotic, antiviral and antifungal. Coconuts oils contain lauric acids which when digested, are converted to monolaurin. Lauric acid has proven anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. A study by Malaysian scientists has shown that coconut oil exhibit as much as 90% and 80% antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively 9. Coconut oils also have been shown to have antibacterial activity against C. difficile, which is a common hospital-acquired infection resulting from the overuse and overtreatment with antibiotics. A study showed that lauric acid in the virgin coconut oil inhibits the growth of the C. difficile and can be used to treated C. difficile associated diarrhea 10. The use of coconut oil for oil pulling is an effective adjuvant procedure in decreasing plaque formation and plaque-induced gingivitis 11. In the study, a statistically significant decrease in the plaque and gingival indices were noticed from day 7 and the scores continued to decrease during the period of study.

woman with red lipstickOil pulling is considered a cost-effective intervention to promote dental hygiene. Coconut oils are also a potent antifungal and have been considered the first dietary intervention to reduce C. albicans GI colonization. Candida albicans, the most common human fungal pathogen, can cause infections with a mortality rate of ~40%. C. albicans is part of the normal gut flora, but when a patient’s immune system is compromised, it can leave the gut and cause infections 12.

When the scientists compared the effects of chlorohexidine (a potent ingredient in mouthwash), fluconazole (an anti-fungal drug used for the treatment of fungal overgrowth) and coconut oils, they found that coconut oil has shown significant antifungal activity which is comparable with ketoconazole and chlorhexidine 13. The best thing about coconut oils that you can get them without a prescription and far less toxic compared to those two compounds.

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  1. Reduce the risk of heart disease (cardioprotective)

Regular consumption of coconut oils has been shown to protects from developing the cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and stroke. Study on rats that were fed on heated palm oil diets (proinflammatory diets) shown that group of rats fed on heated palm oils diet with virgin coconut oils have lower systolic blood pressure compared to a group of rats fed on palm oils alone without virgin coconut oils supplementation. This study suggested that virgin coconut supplementation possesses a cardioprotective effect by preventing the increase in blood pressure via an antioxidant mechanism 14. The antioxidant properties of virgin coconut oils prevent the oxidative stress, which is indicated by the decreased formation of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products like malondialdehyde, hydroperoxides, conjugated dienes and protein carbonyls in serum15 and tissues compared to other oil such corn oils and sunflower oils.

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  1. Anti-cancer properties

A recent study showed that lauric acids that present in coconut oils able to potential to hamper tumor growth. LA was shown to elicit inhibitory effects only in colon cancer cells by inducing apoptosis (induced cells death) 16. Currently, fatty acids are studied to be incorporated into the treatment of cancer. Lauric acid able to make tumor cells more sensitive to biological chemotherapy regime by inducing the expression of microRNA. A recent study published in Oncology Reports demonstrated that lauric acid may efficiently induce miR-378 expression which significantly improved sensitivity to Cetuximab (chemo biologic agent) in the treatment of colorectal cancer 17.

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References

  1. Khaw, K.-T. et al. Randomised trial of coconut oil, olive oil or butter on blood lipids and other cardiovascular risk factors in healthy men and women. BMJ Open 8, e020167 (2018).
  2. Hu Yang, I. et al. [COCONUT OIL: NON-ALTERNATIVE DRUG TREATMENT AGAINST ALZHEIMER´S DISEASE]. Nutr. Hosp. 32, 2822–7 (2015).
  3. de la Rubia Ortí, J. E. et al. Improvement of Main Cognitive Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease after Treatment with Coconut Oil Enriched Mediterranean Diet: A Pilot Study. J. Alzheimer’s Dis. 65, 577–587 (2018).
  4. Fernando, W. M. A. D. B. et al. The role of dietary coconut for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: potential mechanisms of action. Br. J. Nutr. 114, 1–14 (2015).
  5. St-Onge, M.-P., Ross, R., Parsons, W. D. & Jones, P. J. H. Medium-Chain Triglycerides Increase Energy Expenditure and Decrease Adiposity in Overweight Men. Obes. Res. 11, 395–402 (2003).
  6. Mumme, K. & Stonehouse, W. Effects of Medium-Chain Triglycerides on Weight Loss and Body Composition: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J. Acad. Nutr. Diet. 115, 249–263 (2015).
  7. Agero, A. L. C. & Verallo-Rowell, V. M. A randomized double-blind controlled trial comparing extra virgin coconut oil with mineral oil as a moisturizer for mild to moderate xerosis. Dermat. contact, atopic, Occup. drug 15, 109–16 (2004).
  8. Nevin, K. G. & Rajamohan, T. Effect of Topical Application of Virgin Coconut Oil on Skin Components and Antioxidant Status during Dermal Wound Healing in Young Rats. Skin Pharmacol. Physiol. 23, 290–297 (2010).
  9. Khoramnia, A., Ebrahimpour, A., Ghanbari, R., Ajdari, Z. & Lai, O.-M. Improvement of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Content and Antimicrobial Activity of Coconut Oil via Solid-State Fermentation Using a Malaysian Geotrichum candidum. Biomed Res. Int. 2013, 1–9 (2013).
  10. Shilling, M. et al. Antimicrobial Effects of Virgin Coconut Oil and Its Medium-Chain Fatty Acids on Clostridium difficile. J. Med. Food 16, 1079–1085 (2013).
  11. Peedikayil, F., Sreenivasan, P. & Narayanan, A. Effect of coconut oil in plaque related gingivitis – A preliminary report. Niger. Med. J. 56, 143 (2015).
  12. Gunsalus, K. T. W., Tornberg-Belanger, S. N., Matthan, N. R., Lichtenstein, A. H. & Kumamoto, C. A. Manipulation of Host Diet To Reduce Gastrointestinal Colonization by the Opportunistic Pathogen Candida albicans. mSphere 1, (2016).
  13. Shino, B. et al. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Coconut Oil, Probiotics, and Ketoconazole on Candida albicans Isolated in Children with Early Childhood Caries: An In Vitro Study. Scientifica (Cairo). 2016, 1–5 (2016).
  14. Kamisah, Y. et al. Cardioprotective effect of virgin coconut oil in heated palm oil diet-induced hypertensive rats. Pharm. Biol. 53, 1243–1249 (2015).
  15. Arunima, S. & Rajamohan, T. Effect of virgin coconut oil enriched diet on the antioxidant status and paraoxonase 1 activity in ameliorating the oxidative stress in rats – a comparative study. Food Funct. 4, 1402 (2013).
  16. Lappano, R. et al. The lauric acid-activated signaling prompts apoptosis in cancer cells. Cell Death Discov. 3, 17063 (2017).
  17. WENG, W.-H., LEUNG, W.-H., PANG, Y.-J. & HSU, H.-H. Lauric acid can improve the sensitization of Cetuximab in KRAS/BRAF mutated colorectal cancer cells by retrievable microRNA-378 expression. Oncol. Rep. 35, 107–116 (2016).